Ketogenic diet and testosterone cypionate

Learn about the potential effects of combining a ketogenic diet with testosterone cypionate, including possible benefits for weight loss, muscle gain, and overall health. Discover how these two approaches can work together to optimize your testosterone levels and support your fitness goals.

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Ketogenic Diet and Testosterone Cypionate: Effects and Benefits

Popular Questions about Ketogenic diet and testosterone cypionate:

What is the ketogenic diet?

The ketogenic diet is a low-carb, high-fat diet that has been shown to help with weight loss and improve overall health. It involves reducing carbohydrate intake and replacing it with fats, which puts the body into a metabolic state called ketosis.

Can the ketogenic diet affect testosterone levels in men?

Yes, the ketogenic diet can affect testosterone levels in men. Some studies have shown that low-carb diets, such as the ketogenic diet, can lead to a decrease in testosterone levels. However, more research is needed to fully understand the relationship between the ketogenic diet and testosterone levels.

How does the ketogenic diet affect testosterone levels?

The exact mechanism by which the ketogenic diet affects testosterone levels is not fully understood. It is believed that the decrease in carbohydrate intake and increase in fat consumption can disrupt normal hormone production and lead to a decrease in testosterone levels.

Are there any benefits to the ketogenic diet for testosterone levels?

While some studies have shown a decrease in testosterone levels with the ketogenic diet, other studies have found no significant change or even an increase in testosterone levels. It is important to note that individual responses to the diet may vary, and more research is needed to determine the long-term effects of the ketogenic diet on testosterone levels.

What are the potential side effects of the ketogenic diet on testosterone levels?

Some potential side effects of the ketogenic diet on testosterone levels include a decrease in libido, erectile dysfunction, and decreased muscle mass. However, it is important to note that these side effects may not occur in everyone and can vary depending on individual factors.

Is it safe for men to follow the ketogenic diet?

The ketogenic diet can be safe for men to follow, but it is important to consult with a healthcare professional before starting any new diet or making significant changes to your current diet. They can provide personalized guidance and monitor your health to ensure that the diet is safe for you.

Are there any alternatives to the ketogenic diet for improving testosterone levels?

Yes, there are alternative dietary strategies that may help improve testosterone levels, such as consuming a balanced diet that includes a variety of nutrient-dense foods. Regular exercise, stress management, and adequate sleep are also important factors in maintaining healthy testosterone levels.

What are some other potential benefits of the ketogenic diet?

In addition to potential effects on testosterone levels, the ketogenic diet has been shown to help with weight loss, improve insulin sensitivity, and reduce inflammation. It may also have benefits for certain medical conditions, such as epilepsy and neurodegenerative diseases.

What is a ketogenic diet?

A ketogenic diet is a low-carb, high-fat diet that has been shown to help people lose weight and improve their overall health. It focuses on consuming foods that are high in fat, moderate in protein, and low in carbohydrates.

How does a ketogenic diet affect testosterone levels in men?

There is some evidence to suggest that a ketogenic diet may have a positive effect on testosterone levels in men. One study found that men who followed a ketogenic diet for 12 weeks experienced an increase in testosterone levels compared to those who followed a standard western diet. However, more research is needed to fully understand the relationship between a ketogenic diet and testosterone levels.

Can a ketogenic diet help increase testosterone levels in men?

While there is some evidence to suggest that a ketogenic diet may increase testosterone levels in men, it is important to note that individual results may vary. It is always best to consult with a healthcare professional before making any significant changes to your diet or lifestyle.

What are the potential benefits of a ketogenic diet for men?

In addition to potential increases in testosterone levels, a ketogenic diet has been associated with a variety of other benefits for men. These may include weight loss, improved insulin sensitivity, increased energy levels, and improved mental clarity.

Are there any potential side effects of a ketogenic diet?

While a ketogenic diet can have many benefits, it is important to be aware of potential side effects. Some people may experience symptoms such as fatigue, headache, nausea, or constipation when first starting a ketogenic diet. These symptoms are often referred to as the “keto flu” and usually resolve within a few days. It is also important to ensure that you are getting all of the necessary nutrients while following a ketogenic diet.

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The Effect of the Ketogenic Diet on Testosterone Levels in Men: A Comprehensive Guide

Testosterone is a hormone that plays a crucial role in the male body. It is responsible for many important functions, including muscle growth, bone density, and sex drive. As men age, their testosterone levels naturally decline, which can lead to a variety of symptoms such as fatigue, decreased libido, and reduced muscle mass.

The ketogenic diet, a low-carbohydrate, high-fat diet, has gained popularity in recent years for its potential health benefits. Many people follow this diet to lose weight, improve insulin sensitivity, and increase energy levels. But what effect does the ketogenic diet have on testosterone levels in men?

Research on the topic is limited, but some studies suggest that the ketogenic diet may have a positive impact on testosterone levels. One study published in the Journal of Endocrinological Investigation found that men who followed a ketogenic diet for 12 weeks experienced a significant increase in their testosterone levels compared to those who followed a standard low-fat diet.

However, it’s important to note that these findings are preliminary and more research is needed to fully understand the relationship between the ketogenic diet and testosterone levels. It’s also worth noting that individual results may vary, and the ketogenic diet may not be suitable for everyone.

In this comprehensive guide, we will explore the current research on the ketogenic diet and its potential effects on testosterone levels in men. We will also discuss the benefits and risks of the diet, as well as provide tips for incorporating it into your lifestyle. Whether you’re considering trying the ketogenic diet or simply curious about its effects on testosterone, this guide will provide you with the information you need to make an informed decision.

Understanding the Ketogenic Diet

The ketogenic diet, commonly referred to as the keto diet, is a low-carbohydrate, high-fat diet that has gained popularity in recent years. It involves drastically reducing carbohydrate intake and replacing it with fat. This forces the body to enter a state of ketosis, where it primarily burns fat for fuel instead of carbohydrates.

How does the ketogenic diet work?

When you consume carbohydrates, your body breaks them down into glucose, which is used as the primary source of energy. However, when carbohydrate intake is limited, the body needs to find an alternative fuel source. This is where the ketogenic diet comes into play.

By reducing carbohydrate intake to a minimum and increasing fat intake, the body is forced to enter a state of ketosis. In this state, the liver converts fat into ketones, which are then used as fuel by the body. This shift in fuel source has several effects on the body, including weight loss, improved insulin sensitivity, and increased energy levels.

What can you eat on the ketogenic diet?

The ketogenic diet focuses on consuming foods that are high in fat and low in carbohydrates. Some common foods that are allowed on the diet include:

  • Meat: Beef, pork, chicken, turkey, lamb, etc.
  • Fatty fish: Salmon, trout, tuna, etc.
  • Eggs: Preferably organic or pasture-raised eggs.
  • Healthy fats: Avocado, coconut oil, olive oil, butter, etc.
  • Dairy: Full-fat cheese, cream, yogurt, etc. (in moderation)
  • Nuts and seeds: Almonds, walnuts, chia seeds, flaxseeds, etc.
  • Low-carb vegetables: Leafy greens, broccoli, cauliflower, zucchini, etc.

It’s important to note that the ketogenic diet restricts or eliminates certain foods that are high in carbohydrates, such as grains, legumes, most fruits, and sugary foods and beverages.

Benefits of the ketogenic diet

The ketogenic diet has been studied for its potential benefits in various areas, including weight loss, improved blood sugar control, and increased energy levels. Some of the potential benefits of the diet include:

  1. Weight loss: The ketogenic diet has been shown to be effective for weight loss due to its ability to suppress appetite and increase fat burning.
  2. Improved insulin sensitivity: By reducing carbohydrate intake, the ketogenic diet can improve insulin sensitivity, which is beneficial for individuals with type 2 diabetes or insulin resistance.
  3. Increased energy levels: Many people report increased energy levels and improved mental clarity when following a ketogenic diet.
  4. Reduced inflammation: The ketogenic diet may help reduce inflammation in the body, which is believed to be a contributing factor to various chronic diseases.

Is the ketogenic diet suitable for everyone?

While the ketogenic diet has shown promising results for many individuals, it may not be suitable for everyone. It is important to consult with a healthcare professional before starting any new diet, especially if you have any underlying health conditions or are taking medications.

Additionally, the ketogenic diet can be challenging to follow long-term, as it requires strict carbohydrate restriction. It is important to consider your lifestyle and personal preferences when deciding if the ketogenic diet is right for you.

Conclusion

The ketogenic diet is a low-carbohydrate, high-fat diet that forces the body to enter a state of ketosis. It has been studied for its potential benefits in weight loss, improved blood sugar control, and increased energy levels. However, it may not be suitable for everyone, and it is important to consult with a healthcare professional before starting any new diet.

The Role of Testosterone in Men’s Health

Testosterone is a hormone that plays a crucial role in men’s health. It is primarily produced in the testicles and is responsible for the development and maintenance of male sexual characteristics. However, testosterone has many other important functions in the body as well.

Sexual Health

Testosterone is essential for the proper functioning of the male reproductive system. It stimulates the production of sperm and is necessary for a healthy sex drive (libido). Low levels of testosterone can lead to erectile dysfunction, reduced sperm count, and infertility.

Muscle Mass and Strength

Testosterone is known to promote the growth and development of muscle tissue. It increases muscle protein synthesis, which is essential for muscle repair and growth. Higher levels of testosterone are associated with increased muscle mass and strength. This is why testosterone is often used as a performance-enhancing drug in sports.

Bone Density

Testosterone plays a vital role in maintaining bone density. It stimulates bone mineralization and helps prevent the development of osteoporosis, a condition characterized by weak and brittle bones. Low testosterone levels can lead to decreased bone density and an increased risk of fractures.

Mood and Cognitive Function

Testosterone has a significant impact on mood and cognitive function. Low testosterone levels have been associated with symptoms of depression, irritability, and decreased cognitive abilities. Adequate testosterone levels are essential for mental well-being and cognitive performance.

Metabolism and Body Composition

Testosterone influences metabolism and body composition. It helps regulate fat distribution and promotes the growth of lean muscle mass. Low testosterone levels have been linked to increased body fat, particularly in the abdominal area. Maintaining optimal testosterone levels can help support a healthy metabolism and body composition.

Cardiovascular Health

Testosterone plays a role in cardiovascular health. It helps maintain healthy blood pressure levels and supports the production of red blood cells. Low testosterone levels have been associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases, such as heart disease and stroke.

Conclusion

Testosterone is a vital hormone for men’s health. It plays a crucial role in sexual health, muscle mass and strength, bone density, mood and cognitive function, metabolism and body composition, and cardiovascular health. Maintaining optimal testosterone levels is essential for overall well-being and quality of life.

How the Ketogenic Diet Affects Testosterone Levels

The ketogenic diet is a low-carb, high-fat diet that has gained popularity in recent years for its potential health benefits. One area of interest is its effect on testosterone levels in men. Testosterone is a hormone that plays a crucial role in male sexual development and function, as well as muscle growth and overall health.

Research suggests that the ketogenic diet may have both positive and negative effects on testosterone levels. Here are some key findings:

1. Weight Loss and Testosterone

One of the main reasons people follow the ketogenic diet is for weight loss. Excess body fat is known to be associated with lower testosterone levels. Therefore, losing weight through the ketogenic diet may help increase testosterone levels in overweight or obese men.

However, it’s important to note that extreme calorie restriction and rapid weight loss can also cause a decrease in testosterone levels. It’s crucial to follow a well-balanced ketogenic diet that provides adequate calories and nutrients to maintain hormonal balance.

2. Carbohydrate Restriction and Testosterone

The ketogenic diet severely restricts carbohydrate intake, typically to less than 50 grams per day. Carbohydrates are the body’s primary source of energy, and reducing their consumption can have an impact on hormone production.

Some studies suggest that low-carb diets may lead to a decrease in testosterone levels. However, other research has shown that the decrease in testosterone is temporary and may be due to the body adapting to the new diet. After this initial adjustment period, testosterone levels may return to normal or even increase.

3. Fat Intake and Testosterone

The ketogenic diet is high in fat, with approximately 70-75% of daily calories coming from fats. Fat intake is essential for hormone production, including testosterone. Adequate fat intake is necessary to support testosterone synthesis.

However, it’s important to choose healthy fats while following the ketogenic diet. Saturated and trans fats should be limited, while monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats should be emphasized. Healthy fats can be found in foods like avocados, nuts, seeds, and fatty fish.

4. Protein Intake and Testosterone

Protein is an essential macronutrient for muscle growth and hormone production. The ketogenic diet typically includes moderate protein intake. Adequate protein intake is necessary to support testosterone synthesis.

However, excessive protein intake can have a negative impact on testosterone levels. It’s important to consume protein in moderation and focus on high-quality sources such as lean meats, poultry, fish, and plant-based proteins.

5. Overall Health and Testosterone

The ketogenic diet has been shown to improve various markers of overall health, such as reducing inflammation and improving insulin sensitivity. These improvements in health can indirectly influence testosterone levels.

Chronic inflammation and insulin resistance have been linked to lower testosterone levels. By improving these health markers, the ketogenic diet may help optimize testosterone production.

In conclusion, the ketogenic diet may have both positive and negative effects on testosterone levels in men. It may help increase testosterone levels through weight loss, adequate fat intake, and overall health improvements. However, extreme calorie restriction, rapid weight loss, and excessive protein intake can have negative effects on testosterone levels. It’s crucial to follow a well-balanced ketogenic diet and consult with a healthcare professional for personalized advice.

Benefits of Increased Testosterone Levels

Increased testosterone levels can have a number of positive effects on men’s health and well-being. Here are some of the key benefits:

  • Improved muscle mass: Testosterone plays a crucial role in building and maintaining muscle mass. Higher testosterone levels can lead to increased muscle size, strength, and overall athletic performance.
  • Reduced body fat: Testosterone helps to regulate fat metabolism in the body. Higher testosterone levels can lead to a decrease in body fat, particularly in the abdominal region.
  • Increased energy levels: Testosterone is known to boost energy levels and combat fatigue. Men with higher testosterone levels often report feeling more energized and motivated throughout the day.
  • Improved mood and cognitive function: Testosterone has been linked to improved mood, cognitive function, and overall mental well-being. Higher testosterone levels can help reduce symptoms of depression, anxiety, and brain fog.
  • Enhanced libido and sexual function: Testosterone is the primary hormone responsible for male sexual desire and performance. Increased testosterone levels can lead to a higher sex drive, improved erectile function, and better overall sexual satisfaction.
  • Improved bone density: Testosterone plays a crucial role in maintaining bone health and preventing osteoporosis. Higher testosterone levels can help increase bone density and reduce the risk of fractures and bone-related conditions.
  • Increased cardiovascular health: Testosterone has been shown to have a positive impact on cardiovascular health. Higher testosterone levels can help improve blood circulation, reduce the risk of heart disease, and lower cholesterol levels.
  • Enhanced overall well-being: With its wide-ranging effects on physical and mental health, increased testosterone levels can contribute to an overall sense of well-being, confidence, and vitality.

It’s important to note that while increased testosterone levels can have numerous benefits, it’s essential to maintain a balanced and healthy lifestyle. Consulting with a healthcare professional before making any significant dietary or lifestyle changes is always recommended.

Potential Risks of the Ketogenic Diet on Testosterone Levels

The ketogenic diet, while popular for its weight loss benefits and potential for improving certain health conditions, may have some potential risks when it comes to testosterone levels in men. It is important to be aware of these risks before starting the diet, especially for those who are concerned about their testosterone levels.

1. Caloric Deficiency

One of the potential risks of the ketogenic diet is the possibility of being in a caloric deficiency. The diet typically involves consuming high amounts of fats, moderate protein, and very low carbohydrates. This can lead to a reduced overall calorie intake, which may negatively impact testosterone levels in men. Testosterone production requires an adequate amount of calories, and a prolonged caloric deficiency can potentially lower testosterone levels.

2. Nutrient Deficiencies

Another potential risk of the ketogenic diet is the possibility of nutrient deficiencies. Since the diet restricts carbohydrates, it can be challenging to consume a variety of nutrient-dense foods that are typically rich in vitamins and minerals. Certain nutrients, such as zinc and vitamin D, are essential for testosterone production. A deficiency in these nutrients can potentially lead to lower testosterone levels.

3. Increased Cortisol Levels

The ketogenic diet may also increase cortisol levels in some individuals. Cortisol is a stress hormone that can have negative effects on testosterone levels. While the diet is generally known for reducing insulin levels and promoting fat burning, it can also increase cortisol levels in some people. High cortisol levels have been associated with lower testosterone levels in men.

4. Potential Muscle Loss

Due to the low carbohydrate intake, the ketogenic diet may result in potential muscle loss in some individuals. Carbohydrates are the body’s preferred source of energy for intense physical activity, including weightlifting and resistance training. Without sufficient carbohydrates, the body may break down muscle tissue for energy, which can negatively impact testosterone levels. Testosterone plays a crucial role in muscle growth and maintenance.

5. Individual Variations

It is important to note that individual variations exist when it comes to the effects of the ketogenic diet on testosterone levels. Some individuals may experience a decrease in testosterone levels, while others may not be affected. Factors such as genetics, overall health, and lifestyle habits can influence how the diet impacts testosterone levels in men.

Overall, while the ketogenic diet may have numerous health benefits, it is important to be aware of the potential risks it may pose on testosterone levels in men. It is advisable to consult with a healthcare professional or a registered dietitian before starting any new diet, especially if you have concerns about testosterone levels.

Optimizing Testosterone Levels on the Ketogenic Diet

The ketogenic diet is a low-carbohydrate, high-fat diet that has been shown to have various health benefits, including weight loss, improved insulin sensitivity, and increased energy levels. Another potential benefit of the ketogenic diet is its effect on testosterone levels in men.

1. Include healthy fats in your diet

Testosterone is synthesized from cholesterol, so it is important to include healthy fats in your diet to support testosterone production. Good sources of healthy fats include avocados, nuts and seeds, olive oil, coconut oil, and fatty fish like salmon.

2. Consume an adequate amount of protein

Protein is essential for testosterone production and muscle growth. Make sure to include sources of high-quality protein in your ketogenic diet, such as lean meats, poultry, fish, eggs, and dairy products.

3. Avoid excessive calorie restriction

While calorie restriction can be beneficial for weight loss, excessive calorie restriction can negatively impact testosterone levels. Make sure to consume enough calories to support your energy needs and maintain hormonal balance.

4. Manage stress levels

Chronic stress can lead to imbalances in hormone levels, including testosterone. Incorporate stress management techniques into your daily routine, such as meditation, deep breathing exercises, and regular physical activity.

5. Get enough sleep

Quality sleep is essential for hormone production and regulation. Aim for 7-9 hours of uninterrupted sleep each night to support optimal testosterone levels.

6. Stay hydrated

Dehydration can negatively impact hormone production and overall health. Make sure to drink enough water throughout the day to stay hydrated and support optimal testosterone levels.

7. Consider supplementation

In some cases, supplementation may be necessary to optimize testosterone levels. Consult with a healthcare professional to determine if supplementation is appropriate for you and to discuss the potential benefits and risks.

Overall, the ketogenic diet can be a beneficial approach for optimizing testosterone levels in men. By following these tips and maintaining a balanced and healthy lifestyle, you can support your hormone levels and overall well-being.

Other Factors Influencing Testosterone Levels

  • Age: Testosterone levels naturally decline with age. As men get older, their testosterone production decreases, leading to lower levels of this hormone in the body.
  • Body Composition: Body fat percentage can have a significant impact on testosterone levels. Higher body fat levels are associated with lower testosterone levels, while leaner individuals tend to have higher testosterone levels.
  • Physical Activity: Regular exercise, especially resistance training, can help boost testosterone levels. Engaging in physical activity increases testosterone production and promotes overall hormonal balance.
  • Sleep: Adequate sleep is essential for maintaining healthy testosterone levels. Lack of sleep or poor sleep quality can negatively impact testosterone production.
  • Stress: Chronic stress can lead to elevated cortisol levels, which can suppress testosterone production. Managing stress through relaxation techniques and stress-reducing activities can help maintain optimal testosterone levels.
  • Diet: Certain dietary factors can influence testosterone levels. Adequate intake of essential nutrients like zinc, vitamin D, and healthy fats is important for testosterone production. On the other hand, a diet high in processed foods, sugar, and unhealthy fats can negatively impact testosterone levels.
  • Medications and Medical Conditions: Certain medications, such as opioids and corticosteroids, can lower testosterone levels. Additionally, certain medical conditions like obesity, diabetes, and hypogonadism can also affect testosterone production.

It is important to note that while the ketogenic diet may have an impact on testosterone levels, it is just one of many factors that can influence hormone production. Considering these other factors and maintaining a healthy lifestyle overall is crucial for optimal testosterone levels.

Scientific Studies on the Ketogenic Diet and Testosterone

There have been several scientific studies conducted to investigate the effects of the ketogenic diet on testosterone levels in men. These studies have provided valuable insights into the relationship between the diet and hormone levels.

Study 1: A study published in the Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism found that following a ketogenic diet for 12 weeks resulted in a significant increase in testosterone levels in men. The study observed a 17% increase in testosterone levels compared to baseline levels.

Study 2: Another study published in the European Journal of Applied Physiology examined the effects of a ketogenic diet on testosterone levels in elite athletes. The study found that following a ketogenic diet for six weeks led to a significant increase in testosterone levels, as well as improvements in body composition and performance.

Study 3: A study published in the Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition investigated the effects of a ketogenic diet on hormonal and metabolic responses in resistance-trained men. The study found that following a ketogenic diet for 11 weeks resulted in a significant increase in testosterone levels, as well as improvements in body composition and strength.

Study 4: In a study published in the Journal of Obesity, researchers examined the effects of a ketogenic diet on hormonal and metabolic responses in overweight men. The study found that following a ketogenic diet for eight weeks led to a significant increase in testosterone levels, as well as improvements in body weight and insulin sensitivity.

Study 5: A study published in the Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism investigated the effects of a ketogenic diet on testosterone levels in men with obesity. The study found that following a ketogenic diet for 24 weeks resulted in a significant increase in testosterone levels, as well as improvements in body weight and insulin sensitivity.

Overall, these scientific studies suggest that following a ketogenic diet can lead to an increase in testosterone levels in men. However, it is important to note that individual responses may vary and further research is needed to fully understand the mechanisms behind these effects.

Expert Opinions on the Ketogenic Diet and Testosterone

There is a growing body of research on the effects of the ketogenic diet on testosterone levels in men. Experts in the field have varying opinions on whether the ketogenic diet can positively or negatively impact testosterone levels. Here are some expert opinions:

1. Dr. Dominic D’Agostino

Dr. Dominic D’Agostino, a researcher and expert in the field of ketogenic diets, suggests that the ketogenic diet may have a positive effect on testosterone levels. He believes that the diet’s ability to reduce insulin levels and improve insulin sensitivity can lead to increased testosterone production.

2. Dr. Jacob Wilson

Dr. Jacob Wilson, a leading researcher in the field of ketogenic diets and sports nutrition, has a different perspective. He suggests that while the ketogenic diet may initially decrease testosterone levels, it can lead to a rebound effect where testosterone levels increase after an adaptation period.

3. Dr. Jeff Volek

Dr. Jeff Volek, another prominent researcher in the field, has conducted studies that suggest the ketogenic diet does not have a negative impact on testosterone levels. He argues that the diet’s high fat content can actually support testosterone production.

4. Dr. Layne Norton

Dr. Layne Norton, a respected expert in the field of nutrition and bodybuilding, has expressed concerns about the ketogenic diet’s potential impact on testosterone levels. He believes that the diet’s restriction of carbohydrates can lead to decreased testosterone production.

5. Dr. Eric Westman

Dr. Eric Westman, a well-known advocate of the ketogenic diet, suggests that the diet can have a positive effect on testosterone levels. He believes that the diet’s ability to promote weight loss and improve metabolic health can lead to increased testosterone production.

Overall, there is no consensus among experts on the exact impact of the ketogenic diet on testosterone levels. While some experts believe that the diet can have a positive effect, others have concerns about its potential negative impact. Further research is needed to fully understand the relationship between the ketogenic diet and testosterone levels in men.

References

  • Johnston, C. S., Tjonn, S. L., Swan, P. D., White, A., Hutchins, H., & Sears, B. (2006). Ketogenic low-carbohydrate diets have no metabolic advantage over nonketogenic low-carbohydrate diets. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 83(5), 1055-1061.

  • Paoli, A., Grimaldi, K., D’Agostino, D., Cenci, L., Moro, T., Bianco, A., & Palma, A. (2012). Ketogenic diet does not affect strength performance in elite artistic gymnasts. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 9(1), 34.

  • Paoli, A., Rubini, A., Volek, J. S., & Grimaldi, K. A. (2013). Beyond weight loss: a review of the therapeutic uses of very-low-carbohydrate (ketogenic) diets. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 67(8), 789-796.

  • Volek, J. S., Sharman, M. J., Love, D. M., Avery, N. G., Gomez, A. L., Scheett, T. P., & Kraemer, W. J. (2002). Body composition and hormonal responses to a carbohydrate-restricted diet. Metabolism, 51(7), 864-870.

  • Volek, J. S., Sharman, M. J., Love, D. M., Avery, N. G., Scheett, T. P., & Kraemer, W. J. (2003). Effects of a high-fat diet on postabsorptive and postprandial testosterone responses to a fat-rich meal. Metabolism, 52(6), 724-728.